Economics and Social Conflict: Evil Actions and Evil Social Institutions in Virtual Worlds
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Articles Mildenberger, C. Employing robots. Investing and intentions in financial markets.
Economics and Social Conflict
European Journal of Analytic Philosophy. Agent-democratic markets. Online first, Corporate Responsibilization. Journal of Applied Philosophy. DOI Pietri How does size matter for military success? Evidence from virtual worlds. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. A Liberal Theory of Externalities?
Philosophical Studies. A reason to be rational. Spontaneous Disorder. Journal of Institutional Economics. Virtual Killing. Economic Evil and the Other. Expressives, Majoratives, and Ineffability. Public Choice , , Constitutional Political Economy , 24 3 , — Book chapters Mildenberger, C. In: Handbuch Liberalismus.
Companies use advertising to sell to us, but the way they reach us is changing. Increasingly, synergistic advertising practices ensure you are receiving the same message from a variety of sources. Chances are you can guess which brand of beer is for sale at the concession stand. Advertising has changed, as technology and media have allowed consumers to bypass traditional advertising venues. From the invention of the remote control, which allows us to ignore television advertising without leaving our seats, to recording devices that let us watch television programs but skip the ads, conventional advertising is on the wane.
And print media is no different. As mentioned earlier, advertising revenue in newspapers and on television have fallen significantly showing that companies need new ways of getting their message to consumers. What is needed for successful new media marketing is research. In Canada, market research is valued at almost a billion dollars a year, in an industry employing over 1, professional research practitioners with a strong professional association.
From market segmentation research to online focus groups, meta-data analysis to crowdsourcing, market research has embraced new media to create winning and profitable revenue streams for web-based corporations. Technology, and increasingly media, has always driven globalization. The first edition of The World Is Flat , written in , posits that core economic concepts were changed by personal computing and high-speed internet. Access to these two technological shifts has allowed core-nation corporations to recruit workers in call centres located in China or India.
Using examples like a Midwestern American woman who runs a business from her home via the call centres of Bangalore, India, Friedman warns that this new world order will exist whether core-nation businesses are ready or not, and that in order to keep its key economic role in the world, North America will need to pay attention to how it prepares workers of the 21st century for this dynamic.
Many economists pointed out that, in reality, innovation, economic activity, and population still gather in geographically attractive areas, continuing to create economic peaks and valleys, which are by no means flattened out to mean equality for all. It is worth noting that Friedman is an economist, not a sociologist.
His work focuses on the economic gains and risks this new world order entails.
In this section, we will look more closely at how media globalization and technological globalization play out in a sociological perspective. As the names suggest, media globalization is the worldwide integration of media through the cross-cultural exchange of ideas, while technological globalization refers to the cross-cultural development and exchange of technology.
Lyons suggests that multinational corporations are the primary vehicle of media globalization. These corporations control global mass-media content and distribution Compaine It is true, when looking at who controls which media outlets, that there are fewer independent news sources as larger and larger conglomerates develop.
On the surface, there is endless opportunity to find diverse media outlets. But the numbers are misleading. Mass media control and ownership is highly concentrated in Canada. While some social scientists predicted that the increase in media forms would break down geographical barriers and create a global village McLuhan , current research suggests that the public sphere accessing the global village will tend to be rich, Caucasian, and English-speaking Jan As shown by the spring uprisings throughout the Arab world, technology really does offer a window into the news of the world.
For example, here in the West we saw internet updates of Egyptian events in real time, with people tweeting, posting, and blogging on the ground in Tahrir Square.
Behavioral and Network Origins of Wealth Inequality: Insights from a Virtual World
Still, there is no question that the exchange of technology from core nations to peripheral and semi-peripheral ones leads to a number of complex issues. For instance, someone using a critical sociology approach might focus on how much political ideology and cultural colonialism occurs with technological growth. In theory at least, technological innovations are ideology-free; a fibre optic cable is the same in a Muslim country as a secular one, in a communist country or a capitalist one.
But those who bring technology to less developed nations—whether they are nongovernment organizations, businesses, or governments—usually have an agenda.
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A functionalist, in contrast, might focus on how technology creates new ways to share information about successful crop-growing programs, or on the economic benefits of opening a new market for cell phone use. Interpretive sociologists might emphasize the way in which the global exchange of views creates the possibility of mutual understanding and consensus. In each case, there are cultural and societal assumptions and norms being delivered along with those high-speed connections.
Cultural and ideological biases are not the only risks of media globalization. In addition to the risk of cultural imperialism and the loss of local culture, other problems come with the benefits of a more interconnected globe. One risk is the potential censoring by national governments that let in only the information and media they feel serves their message, as can be seen in China. In addition, core nations such as Canada have seen the use of international media such as the internet circumvent local laws against socially deviant and dangerous behaviours such as gambling, child pornography, and the sex trade.
Offshore or international websites allow citizens to seek out whatever illegal or illicit information they want, from hour online gambling sites that do not require proof of age, to sites that sell child pornography.
These examples illustrate the societal risks of unfettered information flow. Today, the internet is used to access illegal gambling and pornography sites, as well as to research stocks, crowd-source what car to buy, or keep in touch with childhood friends. Can we allow one or more of those activities, while restricting the rest? And who decides what needs restricting? In a country with democratic principles and an underlying belief in free-market capitalism, the answer is decided in the court system.
China is in many ways the global poster child for the uncomfortable relationship between internet freedom and government control. Microblogging, or weibo , acts like Twitter in that users can post short messages that can be read by their subscribers. And because these services move so quickly and with such wide scope, it is difficult for government overseers to keep up. This tool was used to criticize government response to a deadly rail crash and to protest a chemical plant. But the government cannot shut down this flow of information completely. Foreign companies, seeking to engage with the increasingly important Chinese consumer market, have their own accounts: the NBA has more than 5 million followers, and probably the most famous foreigner in China, Canadian comedian and Order of Canada recipient Mark Rowswell boasts almost 3 million Weibo followers The government, too, uses Weibo to get its own message across.
Technological globalization is impacted in large part by technological diffusion , the spread of technology across borders.
In the last two decades, there has been rapid improvement in the spread of technology to peripheral and semi-peripheral nations, and a World Bank report discusses both the benefits and ongoing challenges of this diffusion. In general, the report found that technological progress and economic growth rates were linked, and that the rise in technological progress has helped improve the situations of many living in absolute poverty World Bank The report recognizes that rural and low-tech products such as corn can benefit from new technological innovations, and that, conversely, technologies like mobile banking can aid those whose rural existence consists of low-tech market vending.
In addition, technological advances in areas like mobile phones can lead to competition, lowered prices, and concurrent improvements in related areas such as mobile banking and information sharing. However, the same patterns of social inequality that create a digital divide in the West also create digital divides in peripheral and semi-peripheral nations. While the growth of technology use among countries has increased dramatically over the past several decades, the spread of technology within countries is significantly slower among peripheral and semi-peripheral nations.
In these countries, far fewer people have the training and skills to take advantage of new technology, let alone access it. Technological access tends to be clustered around urban areas, leaving out vast swaths of peripheral-nation citizens. While the diffusion of information technologies has the potential to resolve many global social problems, it is often the population most in need that is most affected by the digital divide. Bad roads, limited electricity, minimal schools—the list goes on. Access to telephones has long been on that list. With access to mobile phone technology, a host of benefits are available that have the potential to change the dynamics in these poorest nations.
Sometimes that change is as simple as being able to make a phone call to neighbouring market towns. By finding out which markets have vendors interested in their goods, fishers and farmers can ensure they travel to the market that will serve them best, avoiding a wasted trip.
Others can use mobile phones and some of the emerging money-sending systems to securely send money from one place to a family member or business partner elsewhere Katine Not all access is corporate-based, however.